History and Origin of Fountain Pens

Every writer wishes to have a pen which wouldn’t stop or spill, disrupt his free flow of thoughts which are being poured out unto the paper, that rare surge of emotions that may or may not be the same next time he/she sits down to write their heart out; a pen, which run like the current of a stream, delicate as a plume and elegant in its own sense. Fountain pens were designed primarily to fulfil this purpose, it has been believed.


In fact the origin of fountain pens is said to be from the inked quill which writers in early centuries like Sophocles, Aristotle used to use to write their precious works of art which have been preserved since time immemorial. These parchments inscribed in dark inks with firm yet soft quills never got erased or spoilt over time. With time and with newer developments and inventions pens were made from two quills being put together for the purpose of writing. One of the two quills was being used to store ink inside it to be transferred to the other quill by which the user can write. Since quills can contain inks for long and eventually it could evaporate before being used, the ink would be sealed in the quill by means of a cork and then when required it was squeezed to be able to write through s small opening inside the quill. This continued until the 17th century.

By the early 18th century, metal pens had come into the picture wherein the tip of the quill was converted into a nib shaped like a feather and inside the metal protective covering was a small tube to transfer the ink from the bottom of the pen i.e. ink reservoir to the tip of the pen. Such pens were commonly being called “fountain pens”.

Until the 19th century manufacturing of efficient and dependable fountain pens in the industries was on a smaller scale and at a slower pace since most inks being used in such pens were extremely corrosive and sedimentary in nature. Also the mechanism of air pressure and capillary action which are crucial concepts in the working of a fountain pen were unknown to people before. But eventually after excelling the studies of crafting instruments especially for writing, there was a high growth in the production of fountain pens with free flowing ink, harder nibs, firmer grip and exterior. Prominent manufactures of fountain pen during the 1880s and 1900s was Waterman Phileas and Wirt.

By the 1920s fountain pens with hollow coverings, firmer, shorter nibs dominated the market. The ink had to be inserted in the pen through an eyedropper which caused a lot of leakage and was also a time consuming procedure. This problem was solved by the invention of self fillers in the pens which could be filled by merely dipping the tip of the pen inside the ink and pressing the tube to be able to suck the ink inside the pen.

Fountain pens as we know them now with removable cartridges resembling a refillable ball point or a gel pen became popular since the 1950s after the launch of Parker’s stylish and improved pens.

What is the Best Pain Relief for Dogs with Arthritis?

There are many pain relief drugs that are used for dogs with arthritis. But, these should be advised or prescribed by a vet. One major supplement to help relieve joint pain is glucosamine chondroitin for dogs.

Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Non-Steroidal

These are medications that are anti-inflammatory but do not repair or heal cartilage. These work best when used with other supplements and given with food. These do offer rapid relief from the pain.

Effects of NSAIDS

A few NSAIDS have chondroprotective characteristics, meaning they protect against cartilage breaking down. Others, for example aspirin, can actually destroy cartilage in the doses required for relief of pain. This is one of the major reasons why aspirin is less used for the treatment of osteoarthritis.


NSAIDS most often recommended are medications that need a prescription. There are newer medications currently that have been created which are significantly better than aspirin and the NSAIDs that are older. Rimadyl (carprofen) is one of these very excellent drugs with a low frequency of side effects with the gastrointestinal tract and has upheld itself over time. It is a medication that is given daily. Rimadyl offers great pain relief and seems to slow the arthritic process. There are no damaging effects on cartilage.

Liver Problems

‘Labrador Retrievers’ and perhaps several other breeds, might display a higher propensity for toxicity in liver with Rimadyl. Etogesic (etodolac) is an additional NSAID that is newer. It needs only one dose a day and has proven as effective as Rimadyl. These drugs are only available through your vet by prescription.

Over-The-Counter NSAIDS

Note that many over-the-counter NSAIDs used for control in pain with people are very dangerous when given to dogs. Do not use any drugs without veterinary approval and never use more than one NSAID at the same time.


As dogs grow older, the surfaces of cartilage of the joints begin to start thinning out and cartilage cells start to die. When the cells die, there is a discharge of enzymes that causes inflammation of the joint capsule and it releases excessive joint fluid.

Vet’s Exam

With a physical exam, vets depend on a dog’s pain response to joint palpation, detection of crepitus (a grating or crackling awareness that can be felt in the joint), presence of muscle atrophy, and reflection of gait to diagnose osteoarthritis.

Joint Supplements

There are a variety of joint supplements that are available to promote joint health and healthy cartilage. These comprise an assortment of combinations of chondroitin, glucosamine, MSM, green-lipped mussel and other chondroprotective elements. Many owners and vets have found that a small number of these products seem to be helpful. It is not known whether beginning supplementation at a young age benefits every dog. This is a decision that should be made with your vet, taking into concern factors like diet, genetics and if the dog was diagnosed early on with hip or other joint abnormalities.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

The anti-inflammatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids (DHA, EPA) have also been documented to help dogs with arthritis. These are included in some canine arthritis diets, but to be effective, levels might need to be higher or other supplements might be needed.

Top 4 Reasons To Always Carry A Pocket Knife

Many people will tell you that with a pocket knife and duct tape, you are prepared for anything. Now whether that is true or not is really a debatable question. But almost everyone should carry a pocket knife of some type. When looking for a knife, make sure you look for pocket knife reviews. There are probably 4 really good reasons for carrying a pocket knife.

These include:

  • Emergencies
  • Open Packaging
  • First Aid
  • Protection

1. Emergencies

Having something that cuts well is great to have in an emergency situation. Whether the situation is someone else’s emergency or yours, having something that cuts is usually always needed. The first emergency that comes to mind is a car accident. Seat belts are great but doing an accident they are made to jam – the problem is they often stay jammed. If the car is burning or there is the smell of gasoline, getting out of a car immediately is paramount. But, nine out of ten times, the seat belt is jammed so a pocket knife really comes in handy in these emergencies. The Kershaw Leek is a great EDC pocket knife that can help in not just this situation, but probably all of them as well.

2. Packaging

You received a new electronic device such as a new cell phone and they have it packaged up so tightly you wonder if they really want you to have a new phone. Pocket knives are really handy in situations such as this. Just a few cuts of a good knife and in minutes you are testing out your new phone. It saves you some stress when you need to open any type of packaging.

3. First Aid

Everything is a First Aid kit needs to be cut and there is never anything to cut with. Have you ever tried to cut gauze bandage with your teeth? Whether it is First Aid kit that mom has put together for the car or one of those that can be bought, they never had anything to cut with.

4. Weapon for Protection

Hiking and biking in the woods is nice to help you relax and get away from the stress of city life and more and more people are spending time in the woods. But in the woods you could be attack by some sort of animal or someone wanting to steal your wallet. Either way – it is nice to have a knife to help you safely get out of a dangerous situation. There was an incident several years ago where a hiker was attacked by a bear and he got away by stabbing the bear in the eye with a pocket knife.

So, here are 4 fairly good reasons to always carry a pocket knife.